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    Dual Citizenship

    Discover Arton's Guide to Dual Citizenship.

What is Dual Citizenship?    |    What Are the Benefits of Dual Citizenship?    |    How Do I Acquire Dual Citizenship?    |    Which Countries Allow or Recognize Dual Citizenship?    |    Do Countries Allow Triple Citizenship?

 


 

What is Dual Citizenship?

Dual citizenship, or multiple citizenship, is when a single person is legally recognized as a citizen of two or more countries at the same time.

Not all countries allow their citizens to hold dual citizenship. It is important to double check whether your country permits dual citizenship before seeking to acquire one.

 

What Are the Benefits of Dual Citizenship?

There are many benefits to being a dual citizen, from quality of living to global mobility.

Security

A second passport from a stable country can be life-saving in the event of any kind of political, economic or social unrest in one’s home country.

Global Mobility

Many passports are quite restrictive in their visa-free mobility, forcing citizens to obtain visas whenever they need to travel abroad. A second passport can offer individuals from these countries increased global mobility.
See our Passport Index for the visa-free score of every passport in the world.

Business

New business opportunities open up to dual citizens as they can now do business in the host country as well as travel abroad more freely.

Tax Optimization

Dual citizenship may prove advantageous for tax optimization purposes. For example, some countries only tax income earned from that country and do not subject capital gains to taxes either. This allows investors to manage their wealth more efficiently and effectively.

Quality of Life

Second citizenships can offer access to world-class health care, education and an improved lifestyle.

 

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How Do I Acquire Dual Citizenship?

There are several ways of acquiring a second citizenship and the corresponding passport. These are birth, naturalization, marriage and investment.

Birth

Some countries allow non-resident individuals to obtain citizenship if their parents were born in that country. For example, Hungary allows persons not living in the country to obtain Hungarian citizenship provided they can show in the application that their parents are citizens.

Naturalization

Naturalization is the process by which a resident of a country can acquire citizenship, usually by residing in that country for a certain number of years as a permanent resident. For example, permanent residents of Canada must reside in Canada for four out of six years in order to be eligible to apply for citizenship. Persons with temporary status, such as students and foreign workers, must first gain permanent resident status in order to start counting their years as residents toward the citizenship requirement.

It is important to double check the requirements of your country of residence if you hope to acquire a second citizenship through naturalization.

Marriage

Some countries grant fast-track permanent resident status to individuals who have married a citizen of that country, thereby speeding up the time to citizenship. For example, Canada allows spousal sponsorship, which results in automatic permanent resident status for the foreign spouse.

Investment

More and more countries are offering citizenship by investment programs or residency by investment programs to high net worth investors. Citizenship by investment is the process of acquiring a second citizenship by investing in the economy of the host country. Residency by investment programs offer permanent residency after the investment, which again speeds up the time to citizenship.

 

Which Countries Allow or Recognize Dual Citizenship?

Many countries allow dual citizenship outright, while others allow it only in special circumstances. The following is Arton Capital’s comprehensive list of countries and their dual citizenship policies.

CountryDual CitizenshipConditions/Exceptions
AfghanistanNoA former citizen of Afghanistan, who fled the country due to political instability or war and has acquired new citizenship, may still hold “unofficial” Afghan citizenship
AlbaniaYes
AlgeriaYes
American SamoaYesAmerican Samoa follows U.S. guidelines for dual citizenship.
AndorraNoSpain recognizes dual nationality with Andorra.
AngolaYes
Antigua & BarbudaYes
ArgentinaYes
ArmeniaYes
AustraliaYes
AustriaNoDual citizenship is allowed for individuals who gain two nationalities at birth. Dual citizenship is also allowed if it is in the interest of Austria.
AzerbaijanNo
BahamasNoDual citizenship allowed until 18 years of age.
BahrainNo
BangladeshNoBangladeshi citizens and their children who have foreign citizenship must apply for a Dual Nationality Certificate.
BarbadosYes
BelarusNo
BelgiumYes
BelizeYes
BeninYes
BhutanNo
BoliviaYes
Bosnia & HerzegovinaYesProvided there is a bilateral agreement between the two states.
BotswanaNoDual citizenship allowed until 21 years of age.
BrazilYes
Brunei DarussalamNoDual citizenship allowed until 18 years of age.
BulgariaYes
Burkina FasoYes
BurundiYes
CambodiaYes
CameroonNoDual citizenship allowed until 21 years of age.
CanadaYes
Cape VerdeYes
Central African RepublicYes
ChadN/A
ChileYes
ChinaNo
ColombiaYes
ComorosYes
Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa)NoDual citizenship allowed until 21 years of age.
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)Yes
Costa RicaYes
Ivory CoastYes
CroatiaYes
CubaNo
CyprusYes
Czech RepublicYes
DenmarkYes
DjiboutiYes
DominicaYes
Dominican RepublicYes
East TimorYes
EcuadorYes
EgyptYes
El SalvadorYes
Equatorial GuineaYes
EritreaNo
EstoniaNo
EthiopiaNo
FijiYes
FinlandYes
FranceYes
GabonN/A
The GambiaYes
GeorgiaNoAllowed only when citizenship is granted to a foreigner by the President.
GermanyYesMust apply for a retention permit in order to keep German nationality before applying for second citizenship.
GhanaYes
GreeceYes
GrenadaYes
GuatemalaYesDual citizenship allowed as long as the other country allows it too.
GuineaN/A
Guinea-BissauYesDual citizenship allowed if emigration occurred for economic reasons.
GuyanaNo
HaitiYes
HondurasYesDual citizenship allowed if a treaty exists with that country.
Hong KongNo
HungaryYes
IcelandYesDual citizenship allowed if the other country also allows it.
IndiaNo
IndonesiaNo
IranNo
IraqYes
IrelandYes
IsraelYes
ItalyYes
JamaicaYes
JapanNoDual citizenship allowed until 22 years of age.
JordanYes
KazakhstanNo
KenyaYes
KiribatiNo
North KoreaNo
South KoreaYes
KosovoYes
KuwaitNo
KyrgyzstanYes
LaosNo
LatviaYes
LebanonYes
LesothoNoDual citizenship allowed until 21 years of age.
LiberiaNoDual citizenship allowed until age of maturity.
LybiaNo
LiechtensteinNo
LithuaniaYesDual citizenship allowed only in certain circumstances.
LuxembourgYes

CountryDual CitizenshipConditions/Exceptions
MacauYes
MacedoniaYes
MadagascarNo
MalawiNoDual citizenship allowed until 22 years of age.
MalaysiaNo
MaldivesNo
MaliYes
MaltaYes
Marshall IslandsNo
MauritaniaNo
MauritiusYes
MexicoYes
MicronesiaNoDual citizenship allowed until 18 years of age.
MoldovaYes
MonacoNo
MongoliaNo
MontenegroNoDual citizenship allowed only if a bilateral treaty exists with the other country.
MoroccoYes
MozambiqueNo
Myanmar, BurmaNo
NamibiaYesDual citizenship allowed only for Namibian citizens by birth.
NauruYes
NepalNo
NetherlandsNoDual citizenship allowed if you were born in another country and thus acquired nationality, or lived there as a minor, or if you automatically acquired your spouse’s nationality.
New ZealandYes
NicaraguaYes
NigerYes
NigeriaYesDual citizenship allowed for citizens of Nigeria by birth.
NorwayNoDual citizenship allowed if original nationality cannot be renounced.
OmanNo
PakistanYesOnly with the 18 countries with which it has an agreement.
PalauNoDual citizenship allowed until 21 years of age.
Palestinian TerritoriesN/A
PanamaYes
Papua New GuineaYes
ParaguayYesMultiple citizenship allowed for citizens by birth or descent where international treaties exist.
PeruYes
PhilippinesNo
PolandYes
PortugalYes
QatarNo
RomaniaYes
Russian FederationYes
RwandaNo
Saint Kitts & NevisYes
Saint LuciaYes
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesYes
SamoaYes
San MarinoNo
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo
Saudi ArabiaNo
ScotlandYes
SenegalN/A
SerbiaYes
SeychellesYes
Sierra LeoneYes
SingaporeNo
SlovakiaNo
SloveniaYesDual citizenship allowed for citizens by birth or descent.
Solomon IslandsNoDual citizenship allowed until 18 years of age.
SomaliaYes
South AfricaYesDual citizenship allowed only if permission is granted to keep South African citizenship beforehand.
South SudanYes
SpainYesDual citizenship allowed if desire to keep Spanish nationality is declared within 3 years of acquiring the foreign nationality.
Sri LankaYesMust submit an Application for Retention in order to be allowed dual citizenship.
SudanYes
SurinameNo
SwazilandNo
SwedenYes
SwitzerlandYesDual citizenship allowed provided the other country does not require forfeiture of original nationality.
SyriaYes
TaiwanYes
TajikistanYesDual citizens will only be considered citizens of Tajikistan.
TanzaniaNoDual citizenship allowed until 18 years of age.
ThailandYes
TibetYes
TogoNo
TongaYes
Trinidad & TobagoYesDual citizenship allowed only for citizens of Trinidad & Tobago by birth or descent.
TunisiaYes
TurkeyYes
TurkmenistanNo
TuvaluN/A
UgandaYes
UkraineNo
United Arab EmiratesNo
United KingdomYes
United StatesYes
UruguayYes
UzbekistanNo
VanuatuNo
Vatican CityYes
VenezuelaYes
VietnamYes
British Virgin IslandsYes
YemenYesDual citizenship allowed only if prior permission granted.
ZambiaYes
ZimbabweYesDual citizenship allowed only for citizens by birth.


 


*Arton Capital compiled the above list using extensive open-source research. Not all countries are listed. Please don’t hesitate to contact us should you feel any part of our list is out of date.

 

Do Countries Allow Triple Citizenship?

Some countries do allow their citizens to hold multiple citizenships. Check your country’s government website or embassy to find out whether multiple citizenship is allowed. Arton Capital’s comprehensive list above will tell you whether at least dual citizenship is recognized

 

What Can Arton Do for You?

Arton Capital empowers individuals and families to become Global Citizens. We are a financial advisory firm specializing in investor programs for residence and citizenship, and consider ourselves the all-important link between dreams and reality. We offer a bespoke service experience supported and sustained by long-term relationships.

Arton plays a critical role in empowering governments, consultants, legal and financial professionals, and investors to meet their goals efficiently, effectively and responsibly.